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  1. Ross Justice i very much appriciate your positive attitude and the courage. I bow my head. That's the attitude i would expect from a doctor as that's what we promised to do when we became doctors. I know it's not easy but take me as a example. If i can do with three kids working full time and a husband who is also a doctor and busy i'm sure you all can do it. Now that you have got the basic a bit more next time will get you through this. Even though I have cleared i still keep on comming to this site just to support you guys who could not make it this time. Seing the courage and motivation you have got i think now i can rest in peace!!!!!!!!!!!!. GOOD LUCK FOR MARCH :'( :'( :'( :'( :'( :'( :'( :'( :'( :'(
  2. I passed too. Ross i'm soooooooooooo sorry about your results. Dont worry dear this is life. This is my third attempt and i know exactly how you all feel. I was there few months ago. It's a matter of luck. I did this damn exams with three kids and life was not easy. You all can do it next time so please dont stop trying. You can start after the new year. For now just enjoy the xmas and new year. I know it's easy said than done . But remember we all went through this nightmare.
  3. Good luck to everyone. Less than 24 hours to go. Less pray for all of us. I'm writing this to day as I can still keep my head up and walk. I dont know what will happen tomorrow. I have taken a days off as i'm too nervous to sit in a clinic and depending on the out come i may be suicidal or flying. What ever is to happen will happen and we need to support each other. GOOD LUCK!!!!!!!!! :lol: :lol: :lol: :lol: :lol:
  4. Daisee this is good humor to reduce the anxiety. I'm surprised to see so many still logs on to this forum even after the exams are over.
  5. may god bless us all. Let this be our last exam. Good luck to every one .
  6. thankyou very much for your valuable feed back.
  7. can some one tell us about this hospital please. Have they got any specialist units?. What about the population? Thanks
  8. I have got bedford too. I think it's a small hospital. Dont know much about it.
  9. Ross, Dorian where are you gys?? Are you too busy celebrating?
  10. Hi I have passed. All praise to god. Awaiting to hear good news from everybody. People who did not make it this time be positive and think that it would be a better exam next time as you will have more chanses in clinicals. People like me are strugling with clinicals and what ever happens think there is some good in it. God knows the best!
  11. Hi everbody Good luck. We all worked hard and i'm sure we'll be smiling and jumping up and down in an hours time. Be brave!!! what ever the results are (even though i'm not sure how i'm going to face it). But lets stay togeather and comfort each other. Good luck and may god help us all!!!!!!!!.
  12. Dorian that was realy good. Can i ask you a bit more. Can you give Eg for each one . Like metabolic- Hypo and hper glycemia.... ect. I have made a list for some of them but strugling with few like the CNS.
  13. Dorian i didnt know eithe Economics notes Opportunity cost This is the sixth in a series of occasional notes on economics Stephen Palmer, research fellow a, James Raftery, professor of health economics b. a Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York YO1 5DD, b Health Economics Facility, Health Services Management Centre, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2RT, c These notes are edited by James Raftery ( The concept of opportunity cost is fundamental to the economist's view of costs. Since resources are scarce relative to needs,1 the use of resources in one way prevents their use in other ways. The opportunity cost of investing in a healthcare intervention is best measured by the health benefits (life years saved, quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained) that could have been achieved had the money been spent on the next best alternative intervention or healthcare programme.2 Opportunity cost can be assessed directly with cost effectiveness or cost utility studies. When two or more interventions are compared cost utility effectiveness analysis makes the opportunity cost of the alternative uses of resources explicit. Cost effectiveness ratios, that is the £/outcome of different interventions, enable opportunity costs of each intervention to be compared. Although the concept of opportunity cost is fundamental, incorrect conclusions can result from difficulties in applying the concept. Firstly, the study perspective (societal, patient, etc) is critical since it determines which costs and effects to include in the evaluation.3 A societal perspective incorporates all the costs and benefits regardless of who incurs or obtains them. More restricted perspectives may mask the fact that costs are simply being shifted to another sector rather than being saved. Secondly, the choice of comparisons can play a crucial part in cost effectiveness analysis, affecting the measurement of opportunity cost. Ideally an intervention should be compared with all relevant interventions, including doing nothing. Without a 'do nothing' baseline, the best of two generally undesirable options may be chosen. Sometimes, however, the do nothing option may be unethical, such as when a new treatment is being compared with one that has been shown to be beneficial. Partly for this reason, many studies compare particular interventions with existing practice1 which may or may not be well defined. Failure to select an appropriate comparator may make the intervention appear more cost effective than it should, leading to wrong estimates of the opportunity cost. Thirdly, the incremental rather than average cost effectiveness ratio should be estimated. The average cost per benefit (calculated by dividing the total cost of an intervention by the total benefits) may be less appropriate than the incremental ratio (derived by dividing the additional (incremental) costs by the additional (incremental) benefits).4 A recent study showed that the incremental cost effectiveness ratio for maternal age screening was 27% higher than the average ratio and concluded that the failure to consider incremental ratios could mislead decision markers about the opportunity cost of screening in Down's syndrome.4 Resources used in economic evaluations should be valued at opportunity cost, but doing this is difficult (especially in health care, where there is no perfect market),5 so unit costs tend to be used instead, based on the costs of the various inputs. Accounting practices do not aim to measure opportunity costs.6 Opportunity costing generally requires comprehensive, disaggregated data at the individual patient level. Even then, the allocation of overhead and fixed costs is difficult since the cause and effect relation between resources and different users is difficult to determine. Since many economic evaluations use accountancy cost data, the results should be treated with some caution. The prices of pharmaceutical products may be poor estimates of their opportunity cost because the retail price reflects the patent, the regulation of profits by governments, and the sunk research and development of both successful and unsuccessful products. In practice, very few studies attempt to estimate the opportunity costs of drugs, relying instead on prices. Finally, valuation of resources for which no market exists, such as informal care, or patient time costs, requires methods to derive what economists call 'shadow prices'the true social value (or opportunity cost) of non-marketed resources, such as time and informal care.7 Health economists disagree about the most appropriate technique for measuring the opportunity cost of time. The best valuation of the opportunity cost of time for working age adults is the wage they are, or could be making, in paid work,1 varying according to whether the time lost involves lost work or leisure time8 and the likelihood of being unemployed.9
  14. Did anyonr write about the earl intervention in Schizo. That was sooooooo strait forward that i grabed that topic. Some people who wrote the physical one did write about the metabolic syndrome mainly.
  15. Ross can you remember what were the answers you took for the Psychodynamic EMI. Not that it's going to change much of what i have done but atleast to know if i have been thinking psychodynamically.