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Paranoid schizoid leads to psychological disorders.

basic empathetic response involves using intution.

Perseveration of words is a recognised feature of catatonic schizophrenia.

Reduplicative paramnesia is seen in lesion of Parietal lobe.

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paraniod and depressive position are stages according to klein and paranoid -schizoid position can lead to paraniod behaviors and so the answer is TRUE

2.True - according to Theiry of mind

3.Perseveration is seen in dementia recognised features of catatonia are ecolalia,ecopraxia and stereotypy-FALSE

4. TRUE. may be seen more common in TLE

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basic empathetic response involves using intution. False

Ref Onexamination

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Paranoid schizoid leads to psychological disorders False

It is a normal stage in development but if prolonged MAY lead to psychological disorders

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Reduplicative paramnesia has been reported in the context of a number of neurological disorders, including stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, tumor, dementia, encephalopathy and various psychiatric disorders.6

Taken from the Benson and colleagues study, the following excerpt illustrates some of the core features of the delusion. The patient had suffered a head injury after a fall in his home. The impact had caused a fractured skull and frontal lobe damage to both sides (although more pronounced on the right) owing to the formation of intracerebral hematomas:

“ A few days after admission to the Neurobehavioural Center, orientation for time was intact, he could give details of the accident (as related to him by others), could remember his doctors' names and could learn new information and retain it indefinitely. He exhibited, however, a distinct abnormality of orientation for place. While he quickly learned and remembered that he was at the Jamaica Plain Veterans Hospital (also known as the Boston Veterans Administration Hospital), he insisted that the hospital was located in Taunton, Massachusetts, his home town. Under close questioning, he acknowledged that Jamaica Plain was part of Boston and admitted it would be strange for there to be two Jamaica Plain Veterans Hospitals. Nonetheless, he insisted that he was presently hospitalized in a branch of the Jamaica Plain Veterans Hospital located in Taunton. At one time he stated that the hospital was located in the spare bedroom of his house. ”

The illusory relocation to a familiar place, such as a home or town the patient knows well, is a common theme, although occasionally the patient believes they are resident in more fantastical or exotic locations (such as, in one case, Timbuktu).7

[edit] Medical explanations

Early psychodynamic explanations suggested that reduplicative paramnesia was not directly connected to brain injury, but arises from a motivated denial of illness, particularly, as Weinstein and Kahn8 claimed, in those that regard illness as a 'imperfection, weakness or disgrace'. Other early investigators, did accept that brain injury was an important factor, but suggested that the disorientation was a 'hysterical reaction' motivated by a desire to return home.4

The majority of modern theories, however, suggest that the disorder is caused by disruption to the brain systems involved in memory and familiarity. Interestingly, this was the theme of Pick's original explanation, in which he suggested that the crucial mechanism was a 'convulsive attack' that disrupted conscious memory.1

Benson and colleagues5 later argued that damage to the right hemisphere of the brain left patients unable to maintain orientation owing to impaired visuospatial perception and visual memory, while frontal lobe damage made it difficult to inhibit the false impressions caused by disorientation.

More recent research has broadly supported this view9, and links have been made to the literature on confabulation, where patients seem to recall false memories without any realisation that they are false, often also in the context of frontal lobe damage. Right hemisphere damage is also linked to anosognosia, where patients seems unaware of often striking disabilities present after brain injury, also suggesting a link to the lack of insight seen in this disorder.

One case study has suggested a more refined explanation10, suggesting that damage to the ventral stream of the visual system, that connects the visual cortex to areas in the temporal lobes, could produce the required visuospatial disorientation and poor memory integration. The temporal areas (including the hippocampus) are known strongly to interact with the frontal lobes during memory formation and retrieval, suggesting an explanation for why frontal damage could also lead to the condition.

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Hi Suffi 777, the question was aking about reduplicative paramnesia and parietal lobe not temporal lobe?

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