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Gurpal

Part II ISQ Club - Organic

33 posts in this topic

Part II ISQs will be posted regularly. You are encouraged to post a reply in the thread, stating whether you think an ISQ is true or false and why (eg. a short explanation, with reference to the textbook you used). Please only deal with one ISQ in each post and include the question as the first line of your post.

In a few days this ISQ Club thread will be moved to the Question Bank board. If you submit an answer, your status will be changed to 'Question Bank member' and you will be able to see the Question Bank board. Please allow up to 48 hours for this change to happen.

1. There is decreased short wave sleep in the elderly.

2. Old age and Alzheimer’s disease both show neuronal degeneration in layer 2 of the entorhinal cortex.

3. Episodic memory is usually impaired in semantic dementia.

4. Primacy effect is retained in dementia.

5. The EEG shows exaggerated spikes in Huntington’s disease.

6. Huntington’s disease is associated with CAG repeats.

7. The difference between the protein in CJD and new variant CJD is a disulphide bond.

8. In atypical facial pain temporomandibular joint dysfunction if usually found.

9. Waxy flexibility (flexibilitas cerea) occurs in encephalitis.

10. Social judgement decision-making is spared in lesions of the ventromedial frontal cortex.

11. The globus pallidus is part of the limbic system.

12. In transcribing mRNA the exons are spliced out.

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5. false. eeg in huntingtons disease is flattened.the eeg reveals low amplitute waves.[pg389core psychiatry]

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6.Huntingtons disease is associated with CAG repeats.

TRUE. [pg 55 core psychiatry]

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12. In transcribing mRNA the exons are spliced out.

False

RNA splicing is part of post-transcriptional processing along with capping and polyadenylation. It is the introns (non-coding sequences) which are removed by endonucleolytic cleavage at specific splice junctions from the primary transcript by spliceosomes.

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11. The globus pallidus is part of the limbic system

False

Limbic system contains grey matter, part of the amygdaloid nucleus, the limbic lobe (parahippocampal and cingulate gyri), hippocampal formation, hypothalamus (especially mammillary bodies), anterior nucleus of the thalamus, fibre bundles, fornix, mamillothalamic tract, stia terminalis and lots of 5HT

(A-Z of the MRCPsych, Taylor, p195)

The globus pallidus is part of the basal ganglia

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1. There is decreased short wave sleep in the elderly.

TRUE

KS CTP VII Ch 1.19

The amount of time spent in delta sleep (stages 3 and 4) each night peaks in early adolescence and gradually falls with age until it nearly disappears at about the age of 60. Young adults typically spend about 15 to 20 percent of total sleep time in delta sleep. By the age of 60 or 70, few individuals have any delta-wave activity during sleep. Interestingly, men tend to lose delta sleep at an earlier age than women. The loss of delta sleep results more from a reduction in amplitude than from fewer slow (0.5–2 Hz) waves. Some researchers have speculated that this might indicate accelerated aging in men.

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2. Old age and Alzheimer’s disease both show neuronal degeneration in layer 2 of the entorhinal cortex.

TRUE

KS CTP Ch 51.2

NORMAL AGING, NEURODEGENERATION, AND ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE

The most difficult problem in characterizing the normal aging of the human CNS is identifying a meaningful boundary between normal aging and abnormal neurodegeneration.

Plaques and Tangles

Senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are associated with Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome, and other neurodegenerative diseases. Tangles are fibrous bands of intracytoplasmic inclusions consisting of paired helical filaments that seem to result from abnormal hyperphosphorylation and perhaps glycosylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau. Plaques consist of an b-amyloid core surrounded by microglial processes, dendritic processes, and sometimes neurites that may also contain paired helical filaments. While they are often called 'lesions,' implying pathology, both plaques and tangles occur in the brains of normal aged persons. Plaques may be found, in lower average numbers than in Alzheimer's disease, throughout the neocortex and in the hippocampus. Tangles accumulate with age first in layer II of the entorhinal cortex, later in the hippocampus and nearby temporal lobe areas, and later still in neocortex. There is a rough correlation between plaque counts (especially the neuritic type) and cognitive loss, but there is so much overlap between the counts in elderly adults without cognitive loss and in Alzheimer's patients that conventional neuropathological criteria for Alzheimer's disease require age-adjusted plaque counts. There is a better correlation between tangle counts and cognitive loss.

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11. GLOBUS PALLIDUS IA PART OF LIMBIC SYSTEM

FALSE

ITS PART OF BASAL GANGLIA WHICH ALSO INCLUDES

CAUDATE NUCLEUS, PUTAMEN , SUBTHALMIC NUCLEUS, SUBSTANTIA NIGRA, PARTS OF THALMUS

CORPUS STRIATUM INCLUDES

CAUDATE, GLOBUS PALLIDUS, AND PUTAMEN

LENTIFORM INCLUDES

GLOBUS PALLIDUS AND PUTAMEN

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8. in atypical facial pain temporomandibular junction is usually found. false

pain is superficial and may occur in same location as tmj dysfunction

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1. True - normal ageing brings about characteristic changes in sleep architecture, with increased sleep latency, reduced total sleep time, loss of SWS, frequent arousals leading to fragmentation of nocturnal sleep, and an increase in daytime napping.

Companion to Psychiatric Studies (p.788)

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2. False - in a small study comparing ERC in patients with Alzheimer's disease to elderly controls it was found that ERC had 40% volume loss in Alzheimer's disease. Volume of ERC was not dependent on age but degree of volume loss did correlate with disease severity.

Neurobiol. Ageing 1998; 19: 15-22

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4. True - in early stages tends only to be episodic (LTM) which is impaired in dementia.

Companion to Psychiatric Studies (p.335)

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5. False - in Huntington's disease a low voltage pattern may be seen.

Puri and Hall (p.403)

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6. True - HD is caused by the expansion of an unstable CAG triplet repeat sequence on Chr. 4p, resulting in a polyglutamine expansion in the resultant abnormal protein 'Huntingtin'.

Manchester Course

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7. False - There are no sequence differences between Prpc and PrpSc. The reduction of a disulphide bond results in change in formation,i.e the structural difference between the normal prion protein and that found in nvCJD is a disulphide bond.

Manchester Course

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8. False - TMJ dysfunction and atypical facial pain are 2 separate conditions according to the American Dental websites I looked at.

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9. True - Mahendra (1981) believes that many of those patients with classical Kraepelinian schizophrenic features and catatonia were actually suffering from a neurological disease, perhaps post-encephalitic, from epidemic and endemic viral infections.

Symptoms in the Mind (p.342)

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11. False - The globus pallidus is part of the basal ganglia.

Companion to Psychiatric Studies (p.18)

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12. False - Introns are spliced out in the spliceosome, an assemblage of proteins and snRNPs that recognise terminal intronic sequences.

Companion to Psychiatris Studies (p.153)

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10. Social judgement decision-making is spared in lesions of the ventromedial frontal cortex.

Think this is FALSE since people with frontal lobe lesions have problems with executive function, including impaired judgement. Any thoughts?

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10. social judgement decision-making is spared in lesions of the venteromedial frontal cortex.

Anymore MORE comments on this one??

I kind of agree with salsababe!!

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