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Part II ISQ Club - Psychology/Sociology

38 posts in this topic

Part II ISQ Club - Psychology/Sociology

20 Part II ISQs on two topics will be posted twice a week. You are encouraged to post a reply in the thread, stating whether you think an ISQ is true or false and why (eg. a short explanation, with reference to the textbook you used). Please only deal with one ISQ in each post. All ISQs are taken from previous posts by Forum members.

In a few days this ISQ Club thread will be moved to the Question Bank board. If you submit an answer, your status will be changed to 'Question Bank member' and you will be able to see the Question Bank board. Please allow up to 48 hours for this change to happen.

1 It is easier to determine someone’s mood from their facial expression than from their speech

2 In depression, people are as likely to recall negative words about themselves as about other people

3 The sick role is synonymous with illness behaviour

4 In acute psychological stress, there is vasodilation in the skin

5 In coping strategies such as relaxation, the skin conductance rises

6 A tall person is likely to be more positively received

7 Life events are no less likely to present in depression in the elderly than in adults

8 In the study of communication methods, telephone conversations are associated with longer utterances compared to face to face interactions

9 Women are more able to determine someone’s mood from their eyes alone than men

10 The primacy effect includes deciding about a person by their physical appearance

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3 false

Parsons identified the mechanisms evolved by society to manage and control the amount of illness in society as being achieved through the special status and role assigned to sick people (the 'sick role') and the complementary role for doctors. Specific expectations of the sick person are identified as the need to seek professional help (in relation to the nature and severity of the illness) and to co-operate with the doctor. Privileges are the granting of exemption from performance of normal duties and responsibilities relative to the nature and severity of the illness (such as time off work), and being viewed as in need of care.(ox txtbk)

;)

Mechanic described illness behaviour as a set of stages,initially well, symptoms of illness begin to be experienced, the opinion of immediate social contacts is sought, contact made with a doctor, illness legitimized, individual adopts SICK ROLE, recovery and then rehab.( Puri 72) :-*

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10 false

Given a list of items to remember, we will tend to remember the first few things more than those things in the middle.

The primacy effect has most effect during repeated message when there is little or no delay between the messages.

One reason that the Primacy effect works is that the listener is more likely to start off paying attention, then drifting off when the subject gets boring or the listener is internally processing data you have given them. The limitations of memory also have an effect, and we can miss middle items as we continue to rehearse and process the initial items.  (changing minds.org)

Page 7 puri

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5- false

coping behaviour such as relaxation decreases anxiety which in turn decreases sweating. skin conduction is related to amount of sweat. more sweating leads to more skin conduction by electrolytes rich sweat.

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1. T (An emotion, such as happiness or sadness, is a subjective experience that is associated with some

phsyiological change in arousal and some characteristic behavior. For example, a feeling of

happiness is generally accompanied by a decrease in heart rate, indicating a decrease in arousal,

and a smile, an overt behavior. Fear is generally associated with, among other physiological

effects, an increase in heart rate and clenched teeth.

Do we smile because we are happy or do are we happy because we smile? Theories of emotion

differ in terms of whether the emotion leads to physiological and behavioral changes or the other

way around. According to one theory, the facial feedback theory which has its roots in the

writings and theories of Charles Darwin and William James, emotion can be regulated by

behavior, particularly by facial expression.

Try smiling. Do you feel happy? Try frowning. Do you feel grumpy? Research from the 1970s

and 1980s suggests you do - at least physiologically. In one study, participants who mimicked a

fearful expression showed an increase in heart rate and skin temperature. Kleinke, Peterson, and

Rutledge (1998) added to this theory by examining how mimicking facial expressions might

influence mood.

A number of research studies have shown that making a facial expression, such as a smile, can

produce effects on the body that are similar to those that result from the actual emotion, such as

happiness.

Kleinke, Peterson, and Rutledge (1998) two scientific questions that extend the work on facial

feedback theories of emotion:

Do people who are more self-conscious show stronger mood effects from making facial

expressions than people who are less self-conscious?

Does facial expression have a stronger effect on mood when the person can see his/or her

expression?

To study these questions, Kleinke et al. had students view photographs or slides of people with

either positive facial expressions (smiling) or negative facial expressions (frowning). Participants in

the control group just viewed the photos or slides, participants in the expression group were

instructed to mimic the facial expression, and participants in the expression-mirror group matched

the expression with the aid of looking in a mirror.

Mood was measured using a mood scale in which participants indicated their degree of agreement

with statements reflecting their mood 'right now.' The mood scale was administered before and

after viewing the photographs/slides and change in mood was used as the dependent variable. In

the first experiment, the participants also completed a self-consciousness scale in which they

indicated their agreement with statements such as 'I'm always trying to figure myself out.'

As found in other studies, facial expressions did affect the participants' mood: Mood did not

change in the control group who simply viewed the expressions. Participants who matched the

positive expressions experienced a positive change in mood (they were in a more positive mood

after making positive facial expressions) and participants who matched the negative expressions

experienced a negative change in mood.

Participants who were more self-conscious showed greater changes in mood following making the

positive or negative expressions. Kleinke et al. conclude that this finding indicates that

self-conscious people are more in-tune with themselves and therefore more responsive to

mood-inducting experiences.

Participants who watched their expressions in a mirror also showed a greater change in mood. It

seems that the visual feedback adds to the proprioceptive self-awareness of mood-related facial

expression.

Overall, this study adds to the facial feedback theory of emotion by demonstrating that a

personality characteristic of self-consciousness and visual feedback both add to the effect of facial

expression on emotion.

About the Authors

Chris Kleinke is a professor of psychology at the University of Alaska, Anchorage. He completed

this research with his undergraduate students, Thomas Peterson, who is now in graduate school at

the University of New Mexico, and Thomas Rutledge, who is now a graduate student at the

University of British Columbia.

About the Journal

The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology publishes a wide range of empirical,

theoretical, and review articles on personality and on social psychology.

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1 false ::)i am not sure if you can asses someone's mood better from facial appearance than speech,i rely on rate, content and flow of speech ,people can mask depression smile even when severely depressed. any comments

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Q 6 A tall person is more likely to be positively received

True

Gupta and Gupta, pages 307 - 308

Studies of popularity (in children)have shown body build to affect popularity . Full-length (ectomorphic) and endomorphic (plump) were less well received than the mesomorphic (athletic) types. Later research with adolescents and adults showed simialr findings.

I am saying true to this question because I am presuming 'athletic' type is nearer to 'tall' , however if the question had said tall and thin I would have said false because thiness was not considered attractive in the studies quoted.

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7 true Factors such as prolonged social adversity, life events, early experiences, and social relationships have important effects on the onset and course of neurotic disorders at all ages. Social adversity may have its effect through higher rates of physical illness and exposure to adverse life events, or by inculcating a sense of poor self-esteem. However, the impact of adversity on self-esteem in old age is not clear, since a hard life may in fact equip one to cope better with the difficulties of old age ???

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7 true.As with depression in younger age groups a recent adverse life event is an important ppt factor.Murphy (1982) found that 48% of depressed in and out pts had experienced threatening or loss events in preceding yr as opposed to 23% controls.Findings comparable to life event studies brown + harris except 1 diff,in the elderly recent grave illness or chronic disabling disorder assumed more imp role( seminars)

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question number 4

acute psychological stress leads to vasodilatation of the skin

FALSE:

At the peripheral level, physical or psychological stress is accompanied by secretion of catecholamines and glucocorticoids. Both epinephrine and norepinephrine dilate coronary blood vessels. While norepinephrine produces vasoconstriction in skin, mucosa, skeletal muscles and most other organs, epinephrine dilates veins in skeletal muscles, increases cardiac output and causes tachycardia (Carlson, 1992).

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My answers; 1t,2f,3f,4f,5?,6t,7t,8f,9t,10f

rationale has been well outlined above

re 8: this is all I can find to back my instinctive response: Telephone conversations are normally shorter than face-to-face conversations. This may in part be because of cost and physical discomfort, but Rutter argues that 'the process of social interaction is genuinely different' (ibid., p. 83). Face-to-face discussions tend to be more protracted and wide-ranging, whereas sound-only discussions tend to keep much more to the specific issues (Rutter 1987, p. 95).

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5. In coping strategies such as relaxation, the skin conductance rises.

FALSE

Don't have a reference, but this is from my lecture notes from Dr Teifion Davies, Guy's and St. Thomas Hosps.

Galvanic skin response or electrodermal activity (EDA) or psychogalvanic response is one of the most impt psychophysiological techniques used in psychiatry. The preferred measure of EDA is skin conductance (reciprocal of skin resistance). This is measured between 2 electrodes affixed to the palmar skin of the hand. Used as a measure of arousal.

With increased arousal, i.e. anxiety state , this increases skin conductance. Conversely, with decreased arousal, i.e. relaxed, skin conductance should decrease.

:lol:

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Dear Vn

Thanks for your reply to question no. 1

In future, can we please have a core reference and a brief description rather than a essay on it.

No offence meant but reading all that just makes you lose track of the question.

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Re:

7 Life events are no less likely to present in depression in the elderly than in adults

I think the answer is false because of the 'kindling effect' (i.e people with pre-existing depression are more predisposed for a recurrence of their depression with less intense triggering factors I think) sorry to create more debate in what seemed to be a straightforward answer, but I would appreciate comments on this.

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7 Life events are no less likely to present in depression in the elderly than in adults

Well, here goes...

Life events may have more effect on patients with a later age of onset, perhaps because their genetic loading is relatively less (Paykel & Cooper 1992, McPherson 1993) Shorter OTP 4th Edn page 290

So is this actually F?

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Life events are no less likely to present in depression :(in the elderly than in adults - True

Oxford Textbook of Pyschiatry (current edition)

'Precipitating life events occur at a similar frequency to other age groups, although health-related events are more common among older people.' (section 8.8)

Murphy, E. (1982). Social origins of depression in old age. British Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 135-142

I think that the answer would be true even if it was more likely in the elderly (because of the double negative) :-/ I think unless there's convincing clear evidence that life events are less likely in the elderly, should go with True and the textbook answer. 8)

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Io that quote you've used would mean that the answer is True

The wording of the question is purposely designed to confuse, I think.

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certainly has succeeded in confusing me! :-/

thanx kc and timtam

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1. True - Ethologists have suggested that non-verbal, behavioural elements constitute the major contribution to human communication. Facial expression can betray a variety of emotions even in the presence of soothing and contrary words.

Companion to Psychiatric Studies (p.222)

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2. False - People who are depressed are far more likely to regard themselves, the world and the future in a negative way (Beck).  Depressed patients consistently show a memory bias towards negative material.

Companion to Psychiatric Studies (p.138)

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3. False - The sick role (Parsons 1951) is the role given by society to a sick individual, considered to carry rights and obligations.  Rights - exemption from blame for illness, exemption from normal responsibilities while sick.  Obligations - the wish to recover ASAP, including seeking help from doctor, cooperation with medical investigations and acceptance of medical advice and treatment.

Illness behaviour (Mechanic 1978) is a set of stages describing the behaviour adopted by sick individuals.

Revision notes in Psychiatry (Puri and Hall, p.72)

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4. False - In acute stress the peripheral circulation constricts in order to optimise oxygen delivery to the areas it is most needed in the sympathetic fight/flight response, e.g. muscles, brain, lungs.

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5. False - in relaxation, the parasympathetic system is more active, sweating decreases and so skin conductance goes up.

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