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Part 2 ISQ Club - Psychology

31 posts in this topic

MRCPsych Part 2 ISQs will be posted regularly. You are encouraged to post a reply in the thread, stating whether you think an ISQ is true or false and why (eg. a short explanation, with reference to the textbook you used). Please only deal with one ISQ in each post and include the question as the first line of your post. Posts not following this rule may be removed without warning.

You can download these questions and others on the same topic by clicking here.

You can view all the documents posted so far by clicking here.

1.The recency effect is retained in organic amnesia.

2.Risk taking behaviour is reduced mainly due to the severity of the outcome rather than perceived susceptibility.

3.Patients who ruminate over their obsessions without having any compulsions respond poorly to behavioural interventions.

4.Relaxation therapy causes an increase in alpha waves on EEG.

5.People give up smoking more for the perceived health benefits than confidence in their ability to give up.

6.Extinction occurs as part of stimulus generalization.

7.Neglected children typically show anxious avoidant behaviour in Ainsworth’s strange situation.

8.Babies deprived of face to face contact during the first 6 months go on to develop autism.

9.Social power in the family is based on reward rather than coercion.

10.You are more likely to obey a figure in authority because of their personality rather than their status.

11.If a male rat is made to display submissive behaviour there is increased activity in nucleus accumbens.

12.Rats placed into socially submissive positions will have a higher concentration of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens.

13.Lower social classes are more likely than middle social classes to develop depression following a life event.

14.Primates who rise to become alpha males will have a prior history of making some appeasement signals.

15.Infant rhesus monkeys loose their fear of novel stimuli once their amygdala has been removed.

16.Infant rhesus monkeys loose their fear of other infant monkeys once their amygdala has been removed.

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Q5 F Pls ref: www.garysturt.free-online.co.uk/healthat.htm. Any comments?

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6. Extinction occurs as part of stimulus generalisation.

F

Extinction occurs when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus.

Ref Puri and Hall Revision Notes 2nd edition page 2

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8.Babies deprived of face to face contact during the first 6 months go on to develop autism.

I think this is false - it is too definite and not a generalisable statement (could possibly be CAN go on to develop......)

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Relaxation therapy causes an increase in alpha waves on EEG -TRUE

Psychosomatic Medicine, Vol 59, Issue 3 331-338, Copyright © 1997 by American Psychosomatic Society

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Neglected children typically show anxious avoidant behaviour in Ainsworth’s strange situation-TRUE.

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Q 10 - False. It's their perceived status that is more important. Why do you think medics wear white coats...? Stanley Milgram's work would support this. Not sure about recent references.

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8.Babies deprived of face to face contact during the first 6 months go on to develop autism.False as etiology of autism has not actually been fully established.

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1.The recency effect is retained in organic amnesia.

TRUE

Manchester Notes.

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3.Patients who ruminate over their obsessions without having any compulsions respond poorly to behavioural interventions.

TRUE

Compulsions respond better to behavioural interventions

Rumination respond better to CBT

? Anyone have a reference

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7.Neglected children typically show anxious avoidant behaviour in Ainsworth’s strange situation.

TRUE

Insecure-avoidant: these infants show little distress when separated, ignore their mother's attempts to interact, are often sociable with strangers or may ignore them as they ignore their mother. These mothers often have an aversion to physical contact themselves and speak sarcastically to their babies.

There is also a disorder of attachment called RAD:

Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) is usually the result of a disruption of or trauma to the attachment process such as a history of physical or sexual abuse, neglect and/or frequent change in caregivers within the first three years of a child's life.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union many children were adopted in the West and 1/3 showed attachment problems.

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8.Babies deprived of face to face contact during the first 6 months go on to develop autism.

False

If the infant is raised in an environment where the mother or primary caretaker fails to provide sufficient face-to-face stimulation, these neurons - between the amydala and temperol lobe - will fail to develop normally thus profoundly affecting all aspects of social affective behavior. Consider some of the classic signs of autism.

The autistic child refuses to make eye-to-eye contact--and limbic system abnormalities have been associated with deprivation induced-autistic behavior in primates (Heath, 1972).

This is not to imply that insufficient mothering is the cause of human autism, (though in some cases that may be true), but rather that insufficient mothering can damage the limbic system and produce autistic like behaviors

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6.Extinction occurs as part of stimulus generalization.

false.

these two are different.

Extiction occurs when the conditioned response(Salivation) gradually disappears when the 'bell' repeatedly rings without the 'food' being presented

genralization occur when another similar stimuli generate the same conditioned response

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Patients who ruminate over their obsessions without having any compulsions respond poorly to behavioural interventions.

TRUE

predominant obsessions are associated with poor response to tmt.

( Behavioural Int. here meaning CBT or ERP) - in any case the answer remains the same) See introduction in this study.

'The response is worse in patients with severe symptoms, with predominance of obsessions, poor insight, with very fixed ideas about the content of the obsessions or when there are associated comorbidities such as severe depression, schizoid and schizotypical personality disorders or tics.'

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-44462002000300004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=en

the article concludes this from a literature search.

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2.Risk taking behaviour is reduced mainly due to the severity of the outcome rather than perceived susceptibility.

Possibly true.

www.risktaking.co.uk-

' The perception of risk triggers a cascade of physiological changes that are experienced as high arousal and unpleasant anxiety. This explains why we are motivated to avoid risks...'

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To be frank, I am a bit confused by it. :o I meant to say it is false but wrote true instead. Also , someone has already answered this as true, elsewhere. Please help.

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Hai Vivacious,

2.Risk taking behaviour is reduced mainly due to the severity of the outcome rather than perceived susceptibility.

sounds the answer is  FALSE.

Check this out

Perceived risk and vulnerability as predictors of precautionary behaviour

Auteur(s) / Author(s)

VAN DER PLIGT J. (1) ; British Psychological Society

Résumé / Abstract

Virtually all major theories of health-related behaviours are based on the assumption that people estimate their perceived susceptibility to a disease and evaluate the costs and benefits of precautionary behaviour before taking action]Generally, perceived risk or susceptibility is seen as an important determinant of preventive action.Fitst I briefly summarize the literature on the accuracy of perceived risk or susceptibility. Next I turn to the relation between perceived risk and precautionary behaviour. This article reviews the evidence concerning the assumption that perceived risk or vulnerability is an important determinant of precautionary behaviour and points at some shortcomings of the existing literature. Comparative optimism or unrealistic optimism (i.e. the belief that risks apply more to others than to oneself) is also assumed to be related to preventive behaviour. This field of research is briefly reviewed and it is concluded that there is hardly any evidence for the presumed detrimental effect of optimism on preventive behaviour. This is followed by some methodological considerations about how to measure perceived risk and investigate its role as a behavioural determinant. It is recommended to reduce the diversity in which perceived risk is measured and to focus on conditional risk as opposed to unconditional risk. It will be argued that perceived vulnerability is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for preventive action. Other more proximal antecedents of preventive behaviour will be briefly discussed, followed by a brief discussion of the implications for health education practice.

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Question 2 F.

i agree with above, its one's perception. I think thats why we have individual threshold for risk taking behaviour.

If i can borrow Vivacious ref.

www.risktaking.co.uk-

' The perception of risk triggers a cascade of physiological changes that are experienced as high arousal and unpleasant anxiety. This explains why we are motivated to avoid risks...'

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12.Rats placed into socially submissive positions will have a higher concentration of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. False.

Motivated ones will have higher DA in nucleus accumbens- Reward.

Comments?!

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Q15: T

Q16: F

Ref: Companion to Psychiatric studies Pg27

Studying aspects of social behaviour in adult macaque monkeys, Amaral and his colleagues (Amaral 2002) have shown that selective, bilateral lesions of the amygdala result in a lack of the usual fear response to novel inanimate objects and socially ‘disinhibited’ behaviour. In contrast, amygdala lesions created in neonatal macaques result in more fearful behaviour in social situations after weaning (compared with age-matched normal macaques), though fear of inanimate objects was reduced, in a similar manner to the pattern observed in animals lesioned in adulthood.

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