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hilal05

FINAL  paper 2 crash study...

58 posts in this topic

having a hard time trying to motivate myself.. thought this may help...

i dont want to go through this shit again.!!! >:(:)

starting from today for 3 days, i will cover the following topics.  in the afternoon/ evening i ll be pasting my queries/ questions, whatever  etc.

Day 1: genetics:    

Day 2: Statistics & epidemiology

Day 3: Neuropsychiatry.

Day  4: Genetics, psychology.

Day  5: Statistics , epid. & Psychopharmacology

Day   6:  NeuroPsych., & paper 1stuff  briefly( mood, psychosis, & neurosis )

comments & suggestions will be appreciated !! 8-)

Best of luck to us all...

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great thought Hilal,same here difficult to read by my own-this paper needs lot of discussions.

time is nearing, this will be kick start

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I will start then.

Has somebody got an idea about the suicidal rates among men,women, DSH rates among men, women etc. in 2007.

People who attempted paper 2 last time will surely remember that there are 4 questions on this one after another.

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hello every one. I took paper 2 last time and yet I passed only paper 1 any way so I take paper 2 again in june. I have read british and american journal of psychiatry as recommended by the college for paper 2! and actually some of the previous questions were from artcles in american journal of psychiatry.

for example the question about risk of suicide if GP prescribes the antidepresants and if Psychiatrist does it or risk of suicidal ideations, suicidal attempts and acts in 2007.

risk of suicidal ideation in 2007: 9.2, having suicidal plans 3.1 and suicidal attempts 2.7 in the UK

I have done some notes from these articles however I don't know how to send it to you all here.

Cheers

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I mean I didn't study the journals last time but I'm reading them for the exam now. If I have time I try to read journal of clinical psychopharmacology as because of the questions in pharmacogenetics.

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hello every one. I took paper 2 last time and yet I passed only paper 1 any way so I take paper 2 again in june. I have read british and american journal of psychiatry as recommended by the college for paper 2! and actually some of the previous questions were from artcles in american journal of psychiatry.

for example the question about risk of suicide if GP prescribes the antidepresants and if Psychiatrist does it or risk of suicidal ideations, suicidal attempts and acts in 2007.

risk of suicidal ideation in 2007: 9.2, having suicidal plans 3.1 and suicidal attempts 2.7 in the UK

I have done some notes from these articles however I don't know how to send it to you all here.

Cheers

Ha, atlast found somebody who has got bit of info about these things. If you have got the links for these articles, it will be useful if u can put it in here. OR just as u did for the suicide rates above, u can put some random data which u think will be useful as u have also attempted paper2 last time.

i will try my best to put some info about epidemiology as well.

Thanks very much for ur effort.

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yeah dude , hit us with that shit !

i guess the easiest thing would be for u to email ppl those notes if the want em.

ive been looking for that stuff for ages myself and am still looking for the genetics stuff .

any help woul dbe appreciated.... cant forget that damn qz about what dye to use when checking for sum godforsaken disease !!!! anyone remembers dat ?

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These are questions im making up from themes that i faintly remember from feb.08 paper 2

what is false about genome.

1. complete set of DNA.

2. da base pairs( bacteria 600 000, human & mice  3billion.

3. red blood cells contain genome.

which statement is false.

exons seperated by introns

introns have codons that are regulatory in nature( stop & start codon ).

proteome constantly change not genome.

what is true

translation: 1ststage of gene expression.

transcription : mrna produce by specific code( a-t, c-g)

transcriptome : is complete set of dna produced by genome.

mutation: e.g of it are silent, missense( single substitution), nonsense( stop codon), or frame shift( new sequence).

inheritance:

A.D

A.R.

X.R

X.D.

Mitochondial

1.vertical transmission, equal sex, many generation.

2.horizontal transmission, often present in child,

3.no male to male transmission.

4.all daughters affected.

5.mother transmits.

level of L.D.

choose appropriate choicES.

mild

moderate

Severe

Have  L.D.

1.fagile x

2.klinefelter

3.william

4.prader willi

5.angelman

6.di george

genetic defect

match appropriately

delet 7q11 23

cgg triplet fmr-1

delet 15 q paternal

delet 15 q maternal

delet dystrophin xp21

mutat MECP2

1.duchenne musc dystrophy.

2.Rett

3.prader willi

4.angelman

5.william fragile x.

everyone please contribute , easy or hard, any topic you found a pain to your back side make up a qs & paste...

please stick to the topic......GENETICS only for today.....

thanks :evil:

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i remember there was  a question on brain matter:

increase grey and reduce white

reduce white and increase grey

grey and white increase

grey and white decrease

any ideas ??

help.... :D

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Here are some notes that I've made from mainly american journal of pcyhiatry starting jan 2006:

• CREB1 gene might increase the risk of suicidality in patients treated with antidepressants

• The risk of suicide or attempted suicide mostly increased if patients prescribed antidepressants by psychiatrists

• the same less likely to have suicide or DSH if prescribed by Primary care

• Fluoxetine first line treatment for depression in adolescent, then Sertraline and Citalopram if psychological treatment fails

• Suicide attempt increased before and in a month after taking antidepressants

• New antidepressants not increasing suicide

• &nbsp:lol:SH increased by old generation antidepressants in the first month after taking them

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more notes:

• 5HTTLPR, serotonin transporter gene, increases alcohol craving in alcohol dependent patients

• 5HTTLPR gene with fewer coping strategies in problem solving

• 5HTTLPR gene increases stress if stressors around

• &nbsp:lol:HEA useful in AIDS with depression

• Psychomotor slowness predicts non response to Fluoxetine as shows decreased dopaminergic activity

• Vardenafil, Phosphodiestrase 5 inhibitor, efficient in treatment of erectile dysfunction and mild depression

• AVPRB1 possible cause of mood disorders especially in females

• GRIK4 and HTRA2 in response to Citalopram suggests role of glutamate system in response to SSRIs in depression

• NMDA receptor antagonists being tested for treatment in depression

• Night eating syndrome is more common with substance misuse

• Recovery state most related to the time to relapse in Bipolar Disorder,

• Poor sibling relationship can be predictor of MDD in adulthood

• ?Higher risk of switch to hypomania/mania with Venlafaxine to Sertraline and Bupropione in treatment of bipolar depression

• Olanzapine beneficial in reducing relapse in Bipolar Disorder I

• Familial link between bipolar disorder in parents and behavioural disinhibition if the offspring

• Social endophenotype in Autism on chromosomes 11, 10, 8 and 17

• decreased Amygdala size in Autism

• Nalmefene, opioid antagonist beneficial in treatment of pathological gambling

• Pathological gambling 7% in Parkinson patients

• Panic disorder more common in old females with Bipolar disorder while

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generalized anxiety disorder more common in old males with bipolar Disorder

• Advise to continue Risperidone in disruptive behaviour disorder in children as prevents relapse

• Prefrontal neuronal dysfunction correlates with poor outcome in first episode of psychosis

• Enlarged lateral ventricles is an endophenotype for Schizophrenia

• CCR5, Chemokine receptor gene deletion is a susceptibility factor for late onset Schizophrenia

• Variation in DRD2, Dopamine receptor D2 affects response to treatment in first episode of Schizophrenia

• &nbsp:lol:TNP1, Dysbindin Gene, may be associated with negative symptoms in Schizophrenia

• Antisaccade spatial accuracy and latency deficits endophenotype in Schizophrenia

• correlates of adult ADHD: previously married, male gender, unemployed and non Hispanic white

• Cognitive therapy beneficial in prevention of psychosis in high risk patients

• Negative affect to minor stress is endophenotype for Depression

• Recent rape dating increases DSH in female adolescent but lifetime sexual assaults increases DSH in male adolescents

• deficits in olfactory identification may predict patient with persistent negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in first episode of psychosis

• 5-HT2A receptor related to social communication in autism

• offspring of depressed parents 3 times more likely to have depression and anxiety disorders than general population

• Family focused grief therapy useful in sullen families and intermediate for grief

• CBT for families for grief didn’t reduce depression or suicidal behaviour

• suicidal ideation in adolescents: 2 times more likely to have axis I diagnosis, 12 times DSH at age of 30, 15 times more likely to have suicidal ideas in last 4 years

• suicidal ideas in male adolescents more likely to have lower socioeconomic status and residential dependence at age 30

• Autistic spectrum disorders related to cluster A and C personality disorders

• ADHD related to cluster B personality disorders

• Low SI and Ferritin in Tourette’s syndrome

• Patients with Schizophrenia on Clozapine 53% had weight gain in 20• Patients with Schizophrenia and Diabetes more likely to have cognitive deficits

• reduced orbitofrontal and right inferior frontal and increased cingulated, stratial and parietal Endophenotype (impaired motor control) for OCD

• Monthly Interpersonal psychotherapy useful in maintenance treatment of recurrent depression if responded to IPS initially

• Familial aggregation for postpartum depression

• &nbsp:lol:ysbindin gene related to bipolar disorder

• &nbsp:lol:1 receptor down regulation Endophenotype of Schizophrenia

• Slynar Gene on chromosome 12 and affective disorders

• 5-HT1A receptor involved in response to negative and depressive symptom response to antipsychotic

• risk of suicidal ideation in 2007: 9.2, having suicidal plans 3.1 and suicidal attempts 2.7 in the UK

• increased length of exposure to SSRIs during pregnancy increases postnatal problems: LBW, respiratory problems

08-05-28

• Impaired anterior cingulated activation in response to Stroop Test possible Endophenotype in Depression

• prevalence of PTSD 3 year after injury 4%, 1 year 6% and 2 year 2%

• Familial OCD: 6.2% higher for relatives of patients with OCD

• having 2 parents psychiatric admission increases risk of suicide 6 times

• psychiatric history in parents: 5-10 times increases risk of homicide in offspring

• Affective disorders in parents increases risk of mortality in offspring

• increasing factors of suicide attempt in males: past drug use, family history of suicide, early parental separation, cigarette smoking and borderline personality

• increasing factors for suicide attempts in females: previous DSH, depression, hostility, hopelessness, lethality of previous DSH, borderline personality and cigarette smoking

• Previous DSH increases risk of future suicide act 3 times in females every time

• Methylphenidate useful in treatment of Amphetamine dependence

• Chromosome 15 predisposing to MDD and chromosome 8 for related personality traits

• Psychodynamic psychotherapy useful for panic disorder

• Impaired cognitive flexibility and motor inhibition Endophenotype for OCD

• CATIE study on antipsychotic medication in Schizophrenia: Quetiapine and Olanzapine better than Risperidone

• Compulsive hoarding on chromosome 14 related to OCD

• Increased cortisol in saliva Endophenotype of Depression

• Event potentials Endophenotype for Schizophrenia

• Prevalence of ADHD 5% worldwide

• PICK1 gene predisposing to Amphetamine psychosis

• N-acetylcysteine reduces desire for Cocaine

• GRIK4 gene, Glutamate receptor gene related to response to SSRIs

• Olanzapine increases LBW and NICU in neonates

• Modafinil improves depression in Bipolar patients

• Prevalence of Anorexia Nervosa 2%, incidence 270 in 100,1000 in 2007

These are all the notes I've made up to now covering till May 2007 of american journal of psychiatry and sited relevant articles

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increasing factors of suicide in females and males(2 questions) were in previous exam as well as incidence of suicidal thoughts and attempts in the UK in last year

There were many questions on dementias

genetics of Alzheimer's disease:

a woman comes to you having one allele of APE-4, what is the risk of her having Alzheimer's disease? what would be the risk if she had 2 alleles?

The answer is in Kaplan and Sadock's text book of psychiatry 2005 edition in the second volume, Old Age Psychiatry (3-5 times if one allele, 8 times with 2 alleles for APE-4)

Questions of incidence and prevalence of Depression and Anxiety

Genetics of Schizophrenia( a woman comes to you with schizophrenia, how likely for her child to have it?)

Questions of different EEG patterns in neuropsyhcitaric disorders( incl Frontotemporal dementia: no EEG changes, Huntington, CJD and Petit mal

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there were also some questions about Caffeine

which of these drugs is a SNRI? Duloxetine

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which of these induces sleep?(question in paper 2 in feb)

Serotonin

Noradrenaline

Dopamine

Histamine

GABA( the answer)

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which of these induces sleep?(question in paper 2 in feb)

Serotonin

Noradrenaline

Dopamine

Histamine

GABA( the answer)

i'd go for serotonin (don't ask me why )

and thanks for the excellent effort dude. ;) u r a star an [smiley=engel017.gif] [smiley=engel017.gif]

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you're welcome insane in da brain.

My refernce for the answer is from Kaplan and Sadock's textbook , the first volume in the section regarding Sleep. The neurotransmitters involved in waking are dopamine, serotonin, Histamine and Noradrenaline. But iunduction of Sleep in by GABA(Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates both increase GABA)

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which of these induces sleep?(question in paper 2 in feb)

Serotonin

Noradrenaline

Dopamine

Histamine

GABA( the answer)

i'd go for serotonin (don't ask me why )

and thanks for the excellent effort dude. ;) u r a star an  [smiley=engel017.gif] [smiley=engel017.gif]

The answer is GABA

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what is false about genome.

1. complete set of DNA.

2. da base pairs( bacteria 600 000, human & mice  3billion.

3. red blood cells contain genome.  The only type that does not have dna

which statement is false.

exons seperated by introns

introns have codons that are regulatory in nature( stop & start codon ). Exons are the ones which code.

proteome constantly change not genome.

what is true

translation: 1st stage of gene expression.   2nd

transcription : mrna produce a polypeptide  by specific code( a-t, c-g)     translation.

transcriptome : is complete set of dna produced by genome.   RNA

mutation: e.g of it are silent, missense( single substitution), nonsense( stop codon), or frame shift( new sequence).

inheritance:

A.D

A.R.

X.R

X.D.

Mitochondial

1.vertical transmission, equal sex, many generation.  AD

2.horizontal transmission, often present in child,         AR

3.no male to male transmission.                                 XR

4.all daughters affected ( of affected father)             XD

5.mother transmits.                                                Mitoch

level of L.D.

choose appropriate choicES.

mild

moderate

Severe

Have  L.D.

1.fagile x                                            mild to severe

2.klinefelter                                         ( 60-70 iq)??????

3.William                                               mild -moderate

4.prader willi        %: borderline 27   mild 34   moderate 27   severe 5  profound <1                  

5.angelman          

6.di george

genetic defect

match appropriately

delet 7q11 23

cgg triplet fmr-1

delet 15 q paternal

delet 15 q maternal

delet dystrophin xp21

mutat MECP2

1.duchenne musc dystrophy.

2.Rett

3.prader willi

4.angelman

5.william fragile x.

everyone please contribute , easy or hard, any topic you found a pain to your back side make up a qs & paste...

Brain stuff:  notes

increase grey and reduce white

reduce white and increase grey

grey and white increase

grey and white decrease

help on this one !!!!

Extra notes:

: mahli

Sleep

Promoted by: ACH & GABA

Inhibited by: NA, 5HT, DA, H1

Whilst asleep:

Hormones increase: testosterone, Growth hormone, prolactin( last 2 hours of sleep)

Hormone decrease:  low cortisol

Decrease REM: dec. rennin & dec. melatonin

Slow wave sleep: somatostatin  peaks

5HTTPLR:

14 S SHORT & 16 L LONG ALLELE.

Low s allele is a risk to the following :

increase risk of alcohol dependence,

increase effect of alcohol dependence,

increase antisocial behaviour

increase suicide attempts.

thanks sarvenaz for the notes.

i will go thru it and try to add around it.

:D :silly:

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you're welcome hilal.I hope the exam goes well. Please let me know which book do you read for statistics and research.

many thanks

sarvenaz

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Hi folks

here more notes for paper 2:

• Parent’s suicidal attempt increases risk of suicide attempt by 4 and suicidal event by 8% in the offspring

• decreased cortical thinning in medial inferior frontal and lat sensory motor cortex related to violent behaviour and possibly schizophrenia

• enlarged gyral crowns and thin sulci in preclinical Huntington Disease

• 1 in 7 women diagnosed with depression before and after 39 weeks of pregnancy

• GRIK2 and GRIA3 possible genes related to increased suicidality in treatment with SSRIs

• IGF-1 involved in Schizophrenia

• MAPT-2(tau protein) haplotype related to early age of onset in Front temporal dementia

• FKBP-5 gene related to PTSD following childhood sexual abuse

• Grey matter loss of anterior cingulated in Anorexia Nervosa

• BDNF Val and Met related to progressive changes in brain in Schizophrenia

• Subitramine useful in treatment of binge eating disorder

• Mumps and CMV in childhood predisposes to psychosis later in life

• MATRICS cognitive assessment tool in Schizophrenia

• STEPPS , a psychology treatment, useful in adjunctive therapy or borderline personality patients

• Nicotine dependence with low D2-D3 receptors

• patients with depression 2.7 times more likely to die of IHD

• Childhood treatment of ADHD with stimulants doesn’t increase risk of subsequent substance misuse in adulthood

• Mentalisation based treatment superior to usual treatment in borderline personality disorder

• adolescents with partial eating disorder syndrome 2-3 times more likely to have depression and anxiety in adulthood

• risks of DSH in first episode of psychosis: male gender, increased insight, social class I/II and longer untreated psychosis, around 50% commit DSH

• higher incidence of psychosis in black ethnics in the UK

• 36% of children with LD have psychiatric Disorders in the UK

• Social communication questionnaire best tool for screening for Autism

• DIALOG intervention for outpatients improves clinical outsome

:)

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brilliant work sarvenaz thanks.

cud u mention the source just for validity sake.cheers.

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oops srry didnt notice the ajp at the beginning.thanks again.

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