Sign in to follow this  
Followers 0
Guest supernaut

Paper 2 - Ethics - with complete explanation/refs.

3 posts in this topic

The central feature of virtue theory is:

A. The character of the person

B. The consequences to society

C. The nature of life

D. The beliefs of an individual

E. The benefit to society

References: Savalescu J et al., Medical Ethics and Law: The Core Curriculum (2003) pg. 10

Dr. Who: Of the three most cited ethical theories ( duty-based, utilitarian and virtue based), virtue based theory most hinges on character. For example, the ethicality of an abortion is decided not on the basis of whether a foetus is a person, but in terms of the virtues and vices in individual circumstances. A woman who decides to have an abortion because she is going on holiday may not be described as 'wrong' but as 'callous' and 'light minded'. The rich language used is evidence of its pluralism. However critics have faulted its being prone to conservatism. (A)

The four principles of medical ethics are:

A. Autonomy, Beneficence, Non-malificence and Legality

B. Consent, Beneficence, Non-malificence and Justice

C. Autonomy, Beneficence, Confidentiality and Justice

D. Autonomy, Beneficence, Non-malificence and Justice

E. Amicability, Beneficence, Non-malificence and Justice

References: Savalescu J et al., Medical Ethics and Law: The Core Curriculum (2003) pg. 7 (E)

His assumption was that a moral principle had to be a principle for all people

A. WD Ross

B. E Kant

C. Rawls

D. Hippocrates

E. Aristotle

References: Savalescu J et al., Medical Ethics and Law: The Core Curriculum (2003) pg. 6

Dr. Who: Kant (1724 - 1804) sought to develop maxims to direct moral action. His beliefs in humanity being an end rather than a means, has had a strong influence on liberal political thinking eg: the views that an individuals freedoms should not be compromised to serve society in general. (B)

He developed the theory of prima facie duties that were influential in determining the four principles of medical ethics

A. WD Ross

B. E Kant

C. Rawls

D. Hippocrates

E. Aristotle

Dr. Who: He combined the idea of duties with that of consequences. Prima facie duties, meant that when there was a clash of duties then a judgement must be made depending on specific circumstances of the case. He also stressed the importance of ideas such as fairness and fostering one's talents.(A)

Which is not true of consequentialist theories?

A. Only foreseeable consequences are morally relevant

B. It is a person neutral theory of ethics

C. Moral dilemmas are secondary to factual uncertainties

D. Happiness is a key concern

E. It is principle based

References: Savalescu J et al., Medical Ethics and Law: The Core Curriculum (2003) pg. 4

Dr. Who: The central tenet of consequentialist theory is that an action is morally right only if it promotes the best consequences.(E)

The first written book on medical ethics was authored by

A. Maimonedes

B. Hippocrates

C. Ishaq bin Ali Rahawi

D. Thomas Percival

E. Thomas Aquinas

Dr. Who: In the 9th century Ishaq bin Ali Rahawi addressed ethical issues in medicine in Adab al-Tabib (Conduct of a Physician). ©

An approach to ethics which is concerned with balancing judgements about benefit and harm is said to be

A. Duty-based

B. Utilitarian

C. Pragmatic

D. Beneficent

E. Random

References: Gelder M. et al., Shorter Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, (2006) 5th edition CH 1 pg 71

Dr. Who: A duty based approach is chiefly concerned with setting out clinicians obligations as a series of rules eg: in a code of practise (B)

Testamentary capacity refers to

A. The capacity to testify in court

B. The capacity to undergo psychometric testing

C. The capacity to grant power of attorney

D. The capacity to make a valid will

E. The capacity to consent to treatment

References: Gelder M. et al., Shorter Oxford Textbook of Psychiatry, (2006) 5th edition CH 1 pg 77

Dr. Who: It is the capacity to make a valid will. The testator must understand the will and its consequences, know the nature and extent of his property, can assess the claims of close relatives to property and be free from an abnormal state of mind that may distort feelings or judgements in regard to the will (D)

1 person likes this

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites

The answer for the q. about the four principles of medical ethics should be D: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice which were proposed by Beauchamp and Childress... a 'top-down' theory where widely held values are applied to specific cases.

Share this post


Link to post
Share on other sites
Sign in to follow this  
Followers 0