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Happydoc

last minute doubts

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Can anyone clarify (if u have time)

1. Is Oriental Flush Reaction due to reduction/lack of Aldehyde dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase or both?

2. Is apomorphine dopamine agonist or opioid antagonist?

Thanks

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1. Is Oriental Flush Reaction due to reduction/lack of Aldehyde dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase or both?

Oriental Flash Rection is due to Aldehyde DH deficiencey.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcohol_flush_reaction

2. Is apomorphine dopamine agonist or opioid antagonist?

Apomorphine is a type of dopaminergic agonist. It is a morphine derivative but does not bind to opioid receptos.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apomorphine

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It's actually an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, not aldehyde dehydrogenase.

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That is right and Acetaldehyde is a subtype of Aldehyde, hence we can call it is Aldehyde Dehydrogenase. As only acetaldehyde is involved in this pathway and no formaldehyde, butyraldehyde etc. are involved, therefore Acetaldehyde DH can also be called Aldehyde DH here.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=gene&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=full_report&list_uids=217

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ALDH2 gene (ref Manchester notes) - 'it's like having endogenous disulfarim on board' (because of a lack of aldehyde dehydrogenase).

However - the rate limiting step is alcohol dehydrogenase.

If a question like this come up I think we each need to donate £10 to the charity of Kamran's choice!

F_S

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Synopsis says ' There is decreased function of alcohol metabolising enzymes.........' which is not particularly helpful....

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Synopsis is a bit  vague here I think. To be precise it is Aldehyde / Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency  which is responsible for Flush Reaction.

http://sulcus.berkeley.edu/mcb/165_001/papers/manuscripts/_298.html

ENZYME DEFICIENCIES AND ASIAN FLUSHING

An interesting phenomenon that occurs in some people is the familiar flushing of the face after low to moderate amounts of alcoholic beverage consumption (Luu et al., 1995). This alcohol-flush reaction occurs in some Caucasians, but is particularly common among Asians. Degrees of flushing can range from slightly pink, to bright red. The reaction has been found to be caused by a mutation in the structural gene for the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (Takeshita et al., 1994). Approximately 500f Asians have a deficiency in low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), which is the result of inheritance of a mutant ALDH2*2 allele (Wall et al., 1997). The mutation has the effect of both reducing enzyme activity and increasing the turnover of this activity (WWW3).

ALDH2, located mainly in mitochondria, is responsible for the oxidation of most of the acetaldehyde generated in alcohol metabolism (Takeshita et al., 1994). Acetaldehyde normally is removed by ALDH, but a deficiency of the mitochondrial form

means prevalence of the cystolic version. Cystolic ALDH2 has a

high Km, which causes a lower affinity for acetaldehyde. This leads to slower conversion of acetaldehyde to acetate, giving a steady-state level of acetaldehyde (WWW3). Acetaldehyde therefore accumulates in the blood of individuals deficient in ALDH2 activity, even after small doses of alcohol. The build

up of acetaldehyde results in vasodilation, causing facial flushing.

In addition to flushing of the face, other unpleasant effects also can occur. These include tachycardia or increased heart rate, low blood pressure, headache, hyperventilation, and nausea (WWW3). The presence of these unpleasant and uncomfortable symptoms therefore tends to reduce the frequency and amount of alcohol consumption by the person affected. It has been proposed that these effects combine to deter drinking among many Asians, and may effectively act as a protective mechanism to prevent them from reaching consumption levels indicative of alcohol dependence and abuse (Takeshita et al., 1994). Carriers of the inactive allele do not drink as often, and have consumption levels of alcohol that are significantly lower than non-carriers which include Caucasians and other Asians (WWW4). This genetic trait seems to be one of the strongest factors that influence drinking behavior and risk of alcoholism (Xiao et al., 1996). Studies have found that alcohol use and alcoholism are indeed lower in people of Asian

descent than rates in other ethnic groups (WWW4).

The exact connection between ALDH2*2 and its protective role in alcoholism is not yet thoroughly understood. Other factors may also regulate the mechanism. These include regulation by histamine, prostaglandins, and stimulation of bradykinin (WWW3). What is certain, however, is that elevated levels of acetaldehyde in the blood, rather than blood alcohol concentration, are required to induce flushing. Acetaldehyde is therefore the originator of the physiological effects of flushing (WWW3). Future studies and research would be required to completely determine the role in alcohol consumption and alcoholism.

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apomorphine has nothing to do with opioids ,[highlight]its a dopamine agonist[/highlight]  .

Used in Parkinson's and for erectile dysfunction. Increases growth hormone and reduces prolactin.

Few other pointers : Chronic schizophrenics shows blunted GH response to apomorphine.

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Yes, I had the doubt because it says in Kaplan's self study Guide that apomorphine is an opioid antagonist. thanks all for clarifying.

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Kamran

How long you been revising for Paper 3? You seem to have the answer and reference for everything !!

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Brother I am a slow and steady insect. I am creeping for paper 3 since November 2007, but believe me, I don't study more than 15 minutes a day on average. I don't know what happens. May God help all of us.

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pls can someone help with aswers

6. GROUP THERAPY

A. Sub-grouping

B. Pairing

C. Interpretation

D. Universality

E. Counterdependence

F. Dependence

G. Free floating discussion

1. Two characteristics of a psychodynamic opientated group

2. Two features that improve outcome in group therapy

3. Two features that pose a problem in group therapy

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one more pls

A) Chi-square test

B) McNemar test

C) Fisher test

D) Cluster analysis

E) ANCOVA

F) ANVONA

G) Multiple regression

H) corelation coefficient ..pearsons (parametric)

I) spearmans coefficent (non-parametric)

1. Demonstrate association of height (parametric) and ASPD (choose 3)

2. Relation of conduct disorder and ASPD (choose 2)

3. ASPD vs height and IQ (height and IQ correlated) (choose 2)

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Final Answers

6. GROUP THERAPY  

 

A. Sub-grouping  

B. Pairing  

C. Interpretation  

D. Universality  

E. Counterdependence  

F. Dependence  

G. Free floating discussion  

H. Cohesiveness

 

1. Two characteristics of a psychodynamic orientated group  

G. Free floating discussion

C. Interpretation  

Reference Albert Michael EMI book p.168

2. Two features that improve outcome in group therapy  

D. Universality

H. Cohesiveess

Reference Albert Michael EMI book p.168

3. Two features that pose a problem in group therapy  

B. Pairing

F. Dependence

Reference Albert Michael EMI book p.168

http://64.233.183.104/search?q=cache:uFkiiTcMV9sJ:www.existentialpsychotherapy.net/lectures_and_courses/NSPC_summer_school_2003_groups3.pdf+Dependence+Counter+Dependence+group+therapy&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=ie

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pls can someone help with aswers

6. GROUP THERAPY

A. Sub-grouping

B. Pairing

C. Interpretation

D. Universality

E. Counterdependence

F. Dependence

G. Free floating discussion

1. Two characteristics of a psychodynamic opientated group

C. Interpretation , G. Free floating discussion

2. Two features that improve outcome in group therapy

D. Universality , C. Interpretation

3. Two features that pose a problem in group therapy

B. Pairing , F. Dependence

I think options can ususally be used more than once.

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one more pls

A) Chi-square test

B) McNemar test

C) Fisher test

D) Cluster analysis

E) ANCOVA

F) ANVONA

G) Multiple regression

H) corelation coefficient ..pearsons (parametric)

I) spearmans coefficent (non-parametric)

1. Demonstrate association of height (parametric) and ASPD (choose 3)

2. Relation of conduct disorder and ASPD (choose 2)

3. ASPD vs height and IQ (height and IQ correlated) (choose 2)

1. H) corelation coefficient ..pearsons (parametric), not sure of other 2 ??? A) Chi-square test , C) Fisher test

2. A) Chi-square test , C) Fisher test

3. E) ANCOVA, G) Multiple regression

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thank you agree with ans for 2 and 3

There might be options missing from the question for 1

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GROUP THERAPY    

A. Sub-grouping    

B. Pairing    

C. Interpretation    

D. Universality    

E. Counterdependence    

F. Dependence    

G. Free floating discussion    

 

My take on the EMI  

1. Two characteristics of a psychodynamic orientated group    :G and D

2. Two features that improve outcome in group therapy : C and D  

3. Two features that pose a problem in group therapy  : B and F  

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GROUP THERAPY    

A. Sub-grouping    

B. Pairing    

C. Interpretation    

D. Universality    

E. Counterdependence    

F. Dependence    

G. Free floating discussion    

 

My take on the EMI  

1. Two characteristics of a psychodynamic orientated group    :G and D

2. Two features that improve outcome in group therapy : C and D  

3. Two features that pose a problem in group therapy  : B and F  

That sounds reasonable Nutcracker. Thanks

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Kamran,

Can McNemar's Test be used for parametric data?

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